Global Strategy for Cleaner Fuels and Vehicles
Introducing low sulfur fuels and vehicle emission standards by 2030
The goal of the Global Strategy is for most countries to achieve 50-ppm sulfur fuels by 2020, all countries to reach this level by 2025 and most countries to reach 10-ppm fuels by 2030. The environmental and health benefits of cleaner fuels and vehicles are substantial, eliminating an expected 14 million metric tons of PM cumulatively through 2050 and up to 500,000 fewer premature deaths a year in 2050.
The goal of the Global Strategy is for most countries to achieve 50-ppm sulfur fuels by 2020, all countries to reach this level by 2025 and most countries to reach 10-ppm fuels by 2030. The environmental and health benefits of cleaner fuels and vehicles are substantial, eliminating an expected 14 million metric tons of particulate cumulatively through 2050 and up to 500,000 avoided premature deaths a year in 2050.
- Endorse the Coalition’s Global Strategy to Introduce Low Sulphur Fuels and Cleaner Diesel Vehicles;
- Encourage Coalition partners and other relevant stakeholders to implement its recommendations, including by: adopting, maintaining, and enforcing world-class diesel fuel quality and tailpipe emissions standards for on road light and heavy-duty vehicles in our markets.
Resolve to develop national implementation plans outlining timelines for the nationwide introduction of such standards, if such standards are not already in place.
Partners and Signatories
38 Countries: Australia, Bangladesh, Benin, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Cote d’Ivoire, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Finland, Germany, Guinea, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Luxembourg, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Rwanda, Sweden, Switzerland, Togo, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay
Relevance to advance the Paris Agreement goals
Pairing low sulfur diesel fuel with the right emission control technologies leads to reductions in black carbon as well as other climate pollutants (Bond et al., 2013). Euro VI-equivalent emissions standards that require particulate filters (i.e. filter-forcing standards) are the most effective option for controlling diesel black carbon, reducing PM2.5 emissions by up to 99% and black carbon by over 99%. Euro 4/IV standards also lead to reductions in black carbon emissions of up to 90% by forcing improvements in combustion technology; but, in general, vehicles meeting Euro 4/IV equivalent standards are not equipped with particulate filters and so deliver lower emission reductions than engines meeting a filter-forcing standard. An additional benefit of the introduction of more modern vehicles through the application of filter-forcing standards, with cleaner and more efficient engine technologies, is that these modern vehicles are generally more fuel-efficient (because of the parallel implementation of fuel economy standards) and thus the CO2 emissions of these vehicles are often also reduced.
A move to more stringent standards for diesel fuel and vehicles would reduce cumulative emissions of diesel black carbon by an estimated 7.1 million metric tons through the year 2050.
When the climate impact is assessed over a 100-year time horizon, these black carbon reductions amount to the equivalent of 6.0 billion metric tons of CO2; over a 20-year time horizon, the CO2-equivalent is 23 billion metric tons. Accounting for concurrent reductions in other short-lived climate pollutants, the implementation of stringent standards would save the equivalent of 5.5 billion metric tons of CO2 over a 100-year time horizon, or 22 billion metric tons of CO2-equivalent over a 20-year time horizon. Desulfurization also requires additional energy expenditures at the refinery, increasing refinery emissions. In the absence of further decarbonization of refinery energy supply, we estimate that cumulative refinery emissions associated with this global desulfurization could be up to 1 billion metric tons of CO2. This leaves a net benefit on a 100-year time horizon of at least 4.5 billion metric tons of CO2 equivalent.
 One component in particular of PM2.5, black carbon, is a potent climate forcer that absorbs sunlight and releases heat, causing warming. Because black carbon only has a life in the atmosphere of less than a week, it is a so-called short-lived climate pollutant. Reducing emissions of short-lived climate pollutants like black carbon has a direct and immediate impact on climate change, and can therefore be a valuable complement to reducing CO2 emissions as a tool to limit climate change.
Activities of the Initiative
Outreach and coalition building:
- Ministers and High-level representatives of Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) countries adopted and issued a communique reaffirming their commitment to improve air quality and slow the increasing rate of climate change by taking action to reduce emissions of short-lived climate pollutants such as black carbon at the Coalition’s High Level Assembly in Marrakech, Morocco. Recognizing that motor vehicles, especially diesel vehicles, are major contributors to air pollution and near term climate change, they endorsed the Global Strategy to Introduce Low-Sulfur Fuels and Cleaner Diesel Vehicles(the “Global Strategy”), and encouraged CCAC partners and other relevant stakeholders to implement its recommendations. The CCAC continues to engage with partners on this by providing updates through the website and also requesting countries to report/share progress on their commitments.
- The Heavy Duty Vehicles Initiative implements the Global Strategy by building global, regional and sub-regional networks dedicated to developing and implementing standards and plans to achieve ultra-low and low sulfur levels in fuels coupled with advanced vehicle emissions standards. The focus is on Latin America, Asia, Africa and East Europe and 35 countries supported desulfurization
- The CCAC Heavy Duty Vehicles Initiative implements the Global Strategy through capacity-building events (including training events) at the sub-regional and national levels. Our focus is on Latin America, Asia, Africa and East Europe and we have supported over 35 countries to date; in 2017-2019 our activities will focus on Benin, Ethiopia, Togo, Mali, Cote d’Ivoire, Nigeria, Paraguay, Dominican Republic, Mongolia, Moldova, Indonesia, China, East African countries, Argentina, Panama, Southern Africa.
- Information and updates on the Global Strategy are being shared in the website and also through side meetings to the CCAC Governance meetings two times per year.
Policy-making and implementation:
The initiative works directly with sub-regional and national partners through cooperation agreements to develop and implement clean fuel and vehicle emissions standards. Recent examples include:
- West African countries commit to low sulfur fuels from July 2017 – Nigeria just published their new standard, approved by the Minister of Trade. This proposal would assist the sub-region in implementing these new standards;
- Southern African countries (Mozambique, Malawi and Zimbabwe) to switch to low Sulphur diesel fuels from June 2017; Mozambique has published its new standards. This proposal would assist the sub-region in implementing new standards;
- China implements lower sulfur fuels in 2017 and adopts filter-forcing standards for new trucks and buses starting in 2019. This proposal would assist in implementing these new standards;
- Mexico implements lower sulfur fuels in 2016 and proposes filter-forcing standards for new trucks and buses.
- Santiago, Istanbul and Mexico City committed to soot-free urban bus fleets. Montevideo recommended that 400 Euro III buses (around 3 million US$ in investment) be retrofitted with diesel particulate filters;
- The East African Northern Corridor Authority linking 6 East and Central African countries has adopted the first green freight strategy in Africa in 2016. Over 50 countries and organization pledge support to the Global Green Freight Action Plan. Mexico, Canada and the US are harmonizing their programs while Brazil, Vietnam develop theirs.
- Paraguay adopted a 50 ppm standard nationwide, December 2015.
- Uruguay reached agreement for a national Euro 4 import standard with car importers, Euro 5 when 10 ppm sulfur fuel will be more widely available nationwide; Costa Rica now proposing a move to Euro 3 (2017), Euro 4 (2018), Euro 6 (2021) vehicle emission standards.
- East African countries Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda formally adopted national standards for 50 ppm sulfur in fuels as of 1 January 2015.
- Peru adopted and implemented Euro 4/IV vehicle emission standards: 93% will have access to 50 ppm diesel affecting 27 million people
- Mexico revised emission standards in January 2018 for all new heavy-duty vehicles (both trucks and buses) to permit only Euro VI or US 2010 emission levels from 1 January 2021 increasing likelihood that Mexico achieves its 51% black carbon emission reduction target by 2030 included in its NDC
- Mozambique, Malawi and Zimbabwe now permit only 50 ppm S fuels to be imported
- Cote d’Ivoire decided to limit car imports to 5 years of age, 10 years old for buses and trucks
- In 2017, the Soot-Free Clean Bus Industry Partnership was launched. Four global bus and engine manufacturers, Scania, BYD, Volvo Buses, and Cummins, voluntarily committed to make their portfolio of soot-free engine technologies available to 20 targeted megacities.
- ICCT launched the campaign on Soot-Free Transport
Monitoring and reporting
The CCAC Heavy Duty Vehicles Initiative develops new data and tools to both motivate and demonstrate progress towards deployment of soot-free diesel engines. Activities include annual reporting on global progress as well as visibility of the Global Strategy to address clean diesels worldwide. In 2018, the first Global Progress Towards Soot-Free Diesel Engines report was released: http://ccacoalition.org/en/resources/global-progress-toward-soot-free-diesel-vehicles-2018
Denise Sioson, email@example.com, Secretariat of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition